When did freedom die?

An instrument of mass torture

Last night, Nicolás Maduro announced that all purchases at every supermarket, convenience store, and mom-and-pop abasto would have to be verified through a fingerprint scanner in order to prevent people from purchasing too much – an electronic rationing card. The cadification of the Venezuelan economy is complete.

Listen, about ten years ago, some distant relatives from Venezuela came to Chile on a visit. The patriarch of this family was a retired politician, an intellectual I always admired and respected, and the author of several books on contemporary Venezuelan history and politics. I was thrilled and honored to have them over.

The first day of their trip, I showed them around Santiago. They didn’t enjoy it much, because they were too distracted. All they could think of was finding an ATM that would allow them to withdraw their Cadivi cash allowance.

Watching this hero of mine, this towering figure from my youth, reduced to going from one ATM to another trying to see if “pasó la tarjeta,” if their card was actually working, kind of broke my heart. It brought home the inherent perversity of a system like Cadivi. He couldn’t really enjoy his vacation, because he was always worried that he wouldn’t be able to pay off his hotel bill, his car rental, his incidentals. You never knew when the government would pull the plug on your financial independence, when they would revoke the permission to use your money wherever you please.

I think that’s when freedom died for good, when Cadivi came about. Venezuelans were then forced to go through innumerable hoops, file ridiculous folders, in order to access some cheap dollars.

The worst part? Many people were thrilled about it. Cadivi was a party, and many people had a great time at it. Cadivi was a huge subsidy, but in order to get it, you had to check your dignity at the door. In fact, you were pissed when it went away, and few opposition politicians even dared to say that Cadivi had to be eliminated, saying instead that it had to be “intervened.

I don’t blame people for going through Cadivi and submitting themselves to this perverse system – thankfully, I have never been on that thing, but I understand that people had no choice.

What I blame some of them is for not realizing what they were subjecting themselves to. Yes, people had no choice, but the least you could do is be aware of what you were losing. Heck, Aristóbulo Istúriz sepelled it out for you in recent days, and there are still many who do not understand.

The patriarch from my story? Well, he was thrilled every time the card would pass unencumbered. He would check his bank account every night to see how much of his quota he had already spent, and he would always be counting his pesos.

He couldn’t take a break from the revolution – the revolution was always travelling with him, knowing where he went, and what he spent on. It was his shackle, but he didn’t realize it.

Sometimes, you give up your freedoms because you have to, because they are taken away from you. That is the case in Venezuela. But the least you can do is be mindful of it. This thing from last night? It’s just the corollary of what you’ve been subjected to.

Freedom in Venezuela died a long time ago. Perhaps it’s only now that you’re realizing it.

65 thoughts on “When did freedom die?

  1. Freedom finds its way to a massive and chaotic underground economy which undermines the state, puts individuals at risk, reinforces lawlessness, and favors the strong over the weak. In other words, a boli-utopia.


  2. The former adeco, former causaerrista and current PDVSA honcho Aristobulo Istúriz stated it already years ago: Chavismo falls the day currency controls are lifted.
    He was completely right.


  3. I find the Cadivi dollars hateful and quite unfair.Because the system is so unfair, it reinforces self centeredness and a lack of morality.

    I had a similar experience with a friend from Margarita a few months ago, only it wasn’t about the dollars…it was about shopping.All she wanted to do was buy, buy buy.

    I myself almost never shop for anything expect needed food, maybe because there is so much shopping here, I am uninterested in it But the lack of material life for some Venezuelans is causing them to be obsessed with what they can get.It’s easier to give it up when you have a choice.

    Some are like dogs begging for bones.Others are like criminals who do not care what their self centered behavior does for the country.

    The system is just plain evil.


    • I think this shopping necessity is the consequence of living under +50% of inflation. You just can’t save any money so the only way to “protect” you against inflation is to buy stuff as soon as you can. This behavior is now in our DNA and punish almost the entire Venezuelan population that moves abroad. Seen it many times


  4. You started this post by saying:
    “Last night, Nicolás Maduro announced that all purchases at every supermarket, convenience store, and mom-and-pop abasto would have to be verified through a fingerprint scanner in order to prevent people from purchasing too much”

    I’ve been reading lots of news about this new system however I haven’t seen anyone who has addressed the physical mechanics of this process.

    Who owns the company that will supply the machines & laptops?
    Sounds like a super, duper guiso.
    Where will all the employees come from to man each of these machines?
    What will happen if the machine breaks down or the employee doesn’t show up?
    Will they close the store & prevent sales?
    Who will pay for all this?

    I just don’t see this ending well in this undisciplined & chaotic country.

    To me this is just another road bump in the inevitable collapse of the country.
    They are just trying to divert attention from the real causes of the problem – their own incompetence & failed revolution.


    • Can you imagine a widespread Point of Sale system deployed all over the country. Something in the magnitude of the Visa credit card network? And a punitive network at that? I think this is pie in the sky, a stillbirth of an idea.

      Maybe then can install these systems in a few centralized stores and just put out of business all the medium to small stores in the country while making any shopping expedition on par of ‘renovar el pasaporte’. To boot, you will have the legendary efficiency and customer service culture of the Venezuelan government. Talk about a black market and corruption tinder.

      This will not fix scarcity in ANY WAY. Long lines will be just as long, tempers will fray, business will bust, corruption will flourish.

      “Si la naturaleza se opone, lucharemos contra ella” … pero perderas, porque la naturaleza es mas fuerte!


      • Again, you fail IMO to see the objective behind the intended measure (or the objective behind the announcement of the measure if you will)

        This is yet another planned communication to get people obsessed and distracted in go-no-where discussion.

        Moreover, regardless of ho this gets finally implemented, and what performance it does actually have, its main purpose is to have more control on people and to instil more learned hopelessness in the new serfs.


  5. I was almost not allowed to go INTO the supermarket the other day to spend my money there because they thought i was going to buy regulated shit. You can’t just simply walk into the market, grab a cart and walk every isle browsing and walking.

    yesterday i was not allowed to buy soap bars because i had not yet gone through the fingerprint scanner.

    What’s next?
    I’m leaving Venezuela on december to Panama, the only thing that can stop me is if the airline fucks us up, and there’s a large chance for that to happen.


  6. Cadivi was very much like over-the-counter medicine: it works fine before the expiration date, then it turns toxic. Looking back, by the end of year 2005 numbers told Cadivi was no longer necessary for the purpose FX controls are put into force but Chávez & Co. had already realized its power over the economy.

    When Cadivi became mainstream, freedom died for good.


  7. My wife is currently in Venezuela visiting her mom. Since she is permanent resident of the US, technically, she is a tourist. How does this new “mandate” effect her (or any tourists’) ability to buy stuff?


      • Problem is if you don’t have a cedula, but a passport. It will take about 5 managers about 30 minutes to figure out what to do with that one. Now with the biometric thing…they will probably need a photo, a fingerprint, a copy of your return ticket and a signed declaration if you want to buy some milk…..But that’s your problem, not your spouses.


  8. And this isn’t the last time you’ll hear about something being controlled. Unless the government falls, this is only the beginning. Oppo needs to get their crap together, or even with the president’s unpopularity they won’t be able to take the chavismo dowm.


    • I’m not clicking on your link, but what was at Konan was not very advanced when the Soviets occupied it. Contrary to the claims of one journalist, there is no evidence to suggest there was anything particularly helpful, and that was known early on.

      Considering it took another 4 years (with help from spies in America) for the Soviets to successfully explode their first A-Bomb, it certainly wasn’t all that significant.

      No idea what you’re talking about regarding totalitarianism from ‘world leaders’.


    • what really gave the soviet the help they needed to develop their nukes in record breaking time, only 3 years after the us, was that the guys at the manhattan project gave them every piece of info they could send.
      I don’t agree with your claim that freedom died there, totalitarian rule have existed for thousands of years, besides, nuclear deterrence is ironically was has prevented humanity’s extinction so far.


  9. “Cadivi was a huge subsidy…”
    You are wrong.
    Cadivi was NOT a subsidy, it was not a “gift” from the regime to its hatred-filled enemies (the rest of Venezuelans)
    Why people insist that much in using “subsidy” to describe the aberration that’s cadivi? It was the ONLY LEGAL WAY to aquire foreign currency, damn!
    And today, the currency strangulation, continues to be the ONLY LEGAL WAY to aquire currency.
    You know what that thing is? A dirty monopoly, part of their plan to ruin Venezuela and stay forevern in power.
    Whoever came up with that stupid idea should die and burn in… Wait, uh, that bastard’s already dead, so, at least he got what he deserved by creating the greatest weapon of chavismo against Venezuela.


      • Again, it doesn’t work as a subsidy, the regime just decreed “the dollars cost this much, and the only way to legally get them is to buy them from us”
        It works as a monopoly, it’s no where near a subsidy at all.


          • But it also made it illegal to buy dollars somewhere else thus making it more expensive and risky for those who couldn’t supply their needs through Cadivi. For them it was a prohibition.

            Imagine if the same thing happened with food. You are only allowed to buy certain amount of food at a very good price but if you need more food you can’t buy it legally. Would you call that a subsidy too?


          • If there were legal ways to aquire dollars outside the currency control system (meaning getting as much currency as you needed, regardless of the price), then it would be considered brushing the idea of being a subsidy.
            But cadivi and the whole currency control system as a whole never was, and never will be, a subsidy, it’s just a monopoly created with political ends meant to attack a group of people while netting absurd economical and political profits to the regime.


    • Of course Cadivi was a subsidy. You know this but don’t remember it: between 2003-2010 you could buy dollar bonds through a brokerage at the LEGAL parallel rate and later sell them to get your cash. Chávez and Giordani terminated all brokerages in 2010 and created SITME as replacement. By now you know the rest of the story.


    • Cadivi was a subsidy because it sold US dollars at way below the market price. True, it was a legal subsidy because at the end it was the only legal way to buy US dollars in Venezuela. But it wasn’t a gift either, that’s for sure. Even though at the end the Cadivi exchange rate was ridculously overvalued, you did follow all the legal procedures and requirements, you did use your hard earned BsF to buy them, so no, it wasn’t a gift, it was just a ridiculously wasteful, undignified, non sensical, and damaging “perk” for Venezuelan citizens.


      • It sold dollars “below the market price” only because the regime said that was the price, it doesn’t matter that the dollars “cost more” anywhere else.
        It wasn’t a privilege (Many chavistas claimed that)
        It wasn’t a “perk”.
        It was, and IS, the only legal way to acquire foreign currency, get this through your thick skull, folks, if you buy currency outside it, you’re screwed and the regime has all the right to throw your sorry ass into a cell for years, because black markets are illegal.

        Amieres comment makes a way better comparison than those who want to relate currency with gasoline, claiming that it was a subsidy, in the 4th you could buy currency in any brokerage, and it was perfectly legal (Much like buying food and basic basket products, you weren’t charged with any felony if you decided to buy what you could afford then)

        The currency control system is the most dreadful legal monopoly implanted here in Venezuela in the last freaking century, now, just imagine if you only were allowed to buy food at mercales, and you had to show your pusv id, getting kicked out if you didn’t have it? Then imagine if some shady buhonero was offering you the food in the other sidewalk, just for like 20 times the mercal price (only legal price in the example)? And the moment you hand him the money, a couple of nazional guards come to drag your hungry ass to a cell for buying in a black market?


        • Let me explain this further.

          For the citizens it works exactly like a subsidy, because it DOESN’T MATTER if the black market is legal or not, as long as you can use the black market without any penalty (just like if it were legal), the consequences are pretty much similar to any other subsidy.

          Nevertheless, for those who just CAN’T use the black market for any reason, it works as you say, and is not a subsidy.

          Agree on this?


            • Impunity has nothing to do with it.
              Black market’s still illegal, consequences or not (Same with murder and rape, even if there are 98% of impunity on those, that doesn’t mean they work like some “legal” stuff), it’s a monopoly.

              The regime is not paying anything nor losing anything for selling dollars at the price they determined (That’s the reason it’s not a subsidy), they should have calculated their costs, if any, right, it’s not my problem if they screwed up by some idiotic populistic, but it IS my problem of my life gets affected by their stupidity, and the creation of that monopoly directly affects me and everybody else in this country, regardless of the dollar prices, the grip that strangles the whole country is the monopoly, the fascist arbitrariness they have with their power, and how they use it to fuck everybody else’s lives.


        • If Cadivi had sold dollars at a realistic exchange rate it would have been just a currency control. Because it allowed the official BsF to become ridiculously overvalued, it automatically became a subsidy as well. For a while Venezuelans had subsidized cars and especially subsidized travel abroad, even if we did not use the black market to arbitrage. It was subsidized simply because if Cadivi had used a relatively real exchange rate, travel abroad wouldn’t have seemed so cheap to Venezuelans in the mid-late 2000s. It was only when things really began to get out of control that people began to use Cadivi travel money to “raspar tarjeta” and to play the crazy arbitrage game that reached its peak last year. But even that is not a Chavista invention. When Caldera II implemented similar currency control, the same game began immediately. I vividly remember knowing people who at that time wouldn’t have even dreamed of a European vacation, but who not only did it, but also for free, simply because someone with enough bolívares asked them to use his cupo to travel to Europe (the European cupo being double the one for USA, just like Cadivi). So yes, Cadivi was a currency control, and the only legal way to buy dollars, BUT the moment it allowed the official BsF to become wildly overvalued it automatically became a subsidy as well.


          • “BUT the moment it allowed the official BsF to become wildly overvalued it automatically became a subsidy as well.”
            When the cupos were reduced as part of the monopoly, then the black marked was born, and the dollar prices skyrocketed.
            The price stayed at the ridiculous low only because the stupidity of the corpse’s populism, who always wanted to claim he was gifting venezuelans with the highest minimum salary in the whole world.
            After all, calling it a subsidy was beneficial for his image, as that said he was giving away the dollars to his hateful enemies, and fuck that, the asshole just created the worst monopoly with the gravest in the history.


  10. Selling the sofa!!! Finishing touches to end any idea of liberty……what a bunch of stupid thieves are governing our country!! Isn’t in this goverment at least one prepared and educated person that can raise his voice?


  11. Not a big deal. For an extra 12 BFs, you can probably get all you want out the back door of the store. All Venezuela will take a bribe these days. If the police catch you, it will cost another 12 BFs.


  12. The real tragedy is not that freedom died, but rather that so many Venezuelans were complicit in its death.

    Yesterday’s self-interest lead to today’s Patria.


  13. Sounds like empty rhetoric. I would be very surprised if this can actually be implemented by this incompetent government.


  14. I think economic freedoms died on april 11th 2002, not only the people who ousted Chavez’s acted illegally and spent their only chance poorly, they also gave the goverment the perfect believable bullet-proof excuse to apply all sort of oppresive measures on every aspect of venezuelan society, the situation has only worsened since then.


    • Even if the april 11 didn’t happen, they would be flaunting the commie-instigated riots and plunders from the so called “caracazo” as their excuse for all their aberrations.
      Remember, their brains stayed in the school-bully-phase, they’ll use any excuse to justify what they do.


  15. Such a system will only work if all these fingerprint scanners are going to have a *live* (or almost live) connection to a central database. Otherwise, there will be no way to check what a customer bought in another store a few minutes ago.

    Considering the state of venezeulan electricity and communication networks, this will be quite a challenge.

    BTW, this will probably mean another huge contract for Smartmatic?


  16. maldito control de cambio, cuanto deseo que lo quiten y vuelvan las casas de cambio como era antes, uno de los pocos países del mundo donde las casas de cambio tienen prohibido vender divisas… lo van a levantar parcialmente, legalizaran otra vez casa de cambio porque necesitan dinero de afuera, pero en cuanto recuperen fuerza regresamos otra vez a las malditas carpetas de CADIVI, ineficiente, no logra frenar la salida de doláres, la ha empeorado. Solo falta unificar el cambio y el BCV de el permiso, para poder darlo tienen que unificar el cambio, medida impopular, ojalá se queden las casas de cambio y desaparezca CADIVI-CENCOEX, lo mas corrupto que hay en Venezuela, influencias de poca personas obtienen millones mientras otras les niegan sus doláres y eso es injusto.


  17. No creo que se de los de la captahuellas, es una cortina de humo para esconder otros problemas, como la mega-devaluación que haran en diciembre al unificar el cambio, subira la comida, las medicinas, salvo que el gobierno decida “racionar” ninguna de las 2 medidas son populares. Veremos en que termina esto. Yo prefiero que suban los precios que un maldito racionamiento.


  18. ¿cómo van a poner captahuellas si en muchas partes de Venezuela la luz es malísima salvo en Caracas? no tiene pie ni cabeza, es una locura y si ellos desean hacerlo en todo, debería cubrir los mercados municipales que se volveran preferidos si no racionan…


  19. With this measure the regime is buying itself a political headache maybe a heart attack. Attempting to control the consuming behaviour of 30 million people , for the hundreds of items they consumme day to day is not only impossible but certain to give rise to many many controversial or contentious situations , to thousand of mis-aplications and excesses for which the govt will be blamed by millions of disgruntled consumers. (many of them voters) day after day.

    Its the kind of thing that looks feasible on paper but which has the potential to turn itself into a nightmare of catastrophic propportion both for the govt and for the people that will be subjected to this control . It stinks of ‘1984’, of some insane dystopia gone wild . It will bring more misery to the lives of countless people than almost any other govt measure of the past. and whats worse it will not resolve the problems which it is meant to resolve .

    People who are megalomaniacally obsessed with Power , always feel great when they can think of solutions to problems which involve its massive and draconian exercise whether it take the form of controls , of sanctions , of punishments , of harsh coercion . Somehow such hiperthrofied use of Power makes them feel mighty and grand , omnipotent and implacable . Whatever spin is put on the measure it will be viewed by many as an impingement on their fundamental liberty to buy what they want when they want it..

    Much of the behaviour the govt wants stopped because of the way it helps smugglers and profiteers , happen not at the counter but before it reaches any counter , when goods are taken by people who have access to such goods along the distribution chain . Everyone has seen the way people working in food markets have the privilege of getting preferred access to what they sell , before it even reaches the food aisles. or uniformed men go into markets and take whatever they want from the food stalls without having to wait in the long queues people are making to buy their ration of scarce stapples .

    This measure can have a boomerant effect which the govt appears not to be anticipating but which can do them more harm than any oppo protest.


    • The captahuellas system for food/other goods isn’t even feasible on paper, especially for a country like Venezuela. It’s the Govt’s last-ditch effort to try to stem the looming debacle of even worse food shortages due to lack of foreign exchange from declining oil prices and massive uncontrollable contraband due to ridiculously low Govt. subsidized prices. The captahuellas system didn’t even work in the last Presidential election, as two European international witnesses observed an 8-year old girl with her voting grandmother mistakenly put her little finger on the machine and was “greenlighted”, which in turn sparked the two international witnesses to also try the captahuellas machine, and, they, too, were authorized to vote. What’s truly amazing is that Maduro and Co. are so abysmally ignorant that they actually believe (and, I do believe that they believe) that the captahuellas system can be practically/mechanically effectively implemented on a large scale to control the distribution/sale of foodstuffs (and all retail products, as per a recent Govt. statement) in Venezuela.


    • So the intention is to gather massive amounts of information to then find the “leaks” in the distribution system where the goods are being smuggled out of the country or to the street sellers. An effort that is destined to fail. After a huge effort and investment in infrastructure (fingerprint machines, computers, communications equipment, offices) and personnel (analysts, programmers, managers, clerks) and procedures for gathering staggering amounts of data and creating highly complex algorithms to massively analyze the data and find potential discrepancies using massive processes that require tremendous computer power and disk space, after making the already suffering buyers wait even longer to get some staple foods, after all that, they will find no leaks. All that effort, all that investment, all that trouble and added discomfort will be for naught.

      Why? Two reasons:
      1.- The supermarkets that collect the data (and presumably divert the goods) would have no problem fiddling with the data and merging false sales with legitimate ones.
      2.- The levels of smuggling out of the country are much smaller than what they believe.

      Arreaza and/or Cabello insist that almost 40% of the production is smuggled out of the country. That seems an impossibly high figure. Surely there must be some level of smuggling due to the price controls but nowhere near 40%. If it was so high it could be easily detected and prevented in the frontier passes which are not that many. Also if it was so high people would be paying high premiums to buy the scarce goods which would make them unnecessary to be smuggled out of the country as they would fetch a comparable price in Venezuela. But let us let 21st Century Socialism discover that they cannot repress people’s will, only stifle it for a while.


  20. What a sad individual – checking to see if his card would work or not. So concerned. People want cheap dollars and in effect the state subsidises their trip abroad. Why don’t they plan ahead and buy their $5000 @ 50 on SICAD II?

    In any case, you should recall why exchange controls were introduced on January 17th 2003 to understand why there are Exchange controls. Finally try and accede to the CADIVI site http://www.cadivi.gob.ve – it is imposible to do so and so the gestores are having a party.


    • I don’t think the guy is a sad individual. He’s just trying to be responsible to himself by checking out whether his currency quota is near the limit or not. Otherwise, he’d be penalized with suspension for an entire year.

      This is a key point to understand this kind of behavior. Everyone else in the free world will get their next transaction refused or perhaps will only pay an overdraft fee if they’ve spent too much with their credit card, but they will never be subjected to stiff penalties.

      Regarding SICAD II, your roasting is a joke. No common people are getting that rate unless they have political connections.


    • “Why don’t they plan ahead and buy their $5000 @ 50 on SICAD II?”
      Because the moronic regime bureaucrat in charge of paying said dollars would have awakened angry that day and deny his purchase (The same with every other rate, again, the monopoly depends on the imbecile asshole’s mood when you talk to him), and then the guy would have gone on the trip with absolutely no dollars to spend (Nevermind that in the 4th people didn’t have to go through any stupid system like that to spend their money outside the country).

      “In any case, you should recall why exchange controls were introduced on January 17th 2003 to understand why there are Exchange controls.”
      It was just the corpse’s attack and revenge against the private sector of economy (He claimed every private entrepreneur was behind the infamous power void that kicked him off chimpanflores in 2002)

      Creating a currency exchange contro system in an economy that depends almost only from importing stuff is the easiest way to destroy every person you want to get control of said society through scarcity and speculation.


  21. According to Olivero’s piece in Prodavinci (which identifies 3 contrasting regime plans for the handling of the current crisis, one by Ramirez, the other by Arreaza and the third by Merentes ) one of Arreazas proposed measures to face the crisis includes the strenghtening of govt control over areas such as food and medicine distribution where most of what is imported is being imported direct by the govt.

    Lets not forget that when Giordani was confronting Ramirez and attempting to get him fired from his post as head of Pdvsa . Arreaza was said to be one of his closest allies.

    We can thus interpret the captahuella measure as one arising from Arreazas plan which reflects an orthodox dogmatic ideological preference for always prioritizing the use of ruthless state power to handle any economic problems (a la Giordani) . The state is epically noble and omnipotent so you can always rely on solving problems through the ruthless use of state force .So this is emotionally very sattisfying for people of Arreazas and Giordanis statolatric fascistic ideological ilk .

    They of course underestimate the difficulty of creating any such system for the control of the massive consumption of hundreds of different items for the 30 million people that inhabit Venezuela .!! .

    Maduro by going along with this part of Arreazas plan is gaining favour from this wing of the Chavista leadership and scoring points as an orthodox ideologue . Maybe also he is getting back at Ramirez for having the effrontery of succesfully opposing his deposition as head of Pdvsa ( as Giordani wanted with the support of many within the ruling clique ). .


  22. They elected Chávez multiple times and Maduro once, didn’t they?

    I would bet that this “retired politician and intellectual” used to nurture good feelings toward the revolution and possibly voted for Chávez too. Until it hit home (his home). Then everything started to change. Right?

    That’s the cool thing about life, most of the times – there are some injustices, granted, but still most of the times – the bright, honest, hardworking Venezuelans, who had foreseen what would ensue back in 1995-99, had the means to escape all this, the ones suffering in Venezuela now – I know that there are good people suffering, but still most of them are not – are exactly the ones who had made all this criminal revolution possible.

    So, Ni Ni’s and Chávistas, GOOD LUCK REAPING WHAT YOU SEWED! Let me repeat again:

    No, I’m not sorry at all! My country will probably go to hell because of socialists (politicians and stupid voters) in the next two years too, and I will be in the first plane to Europe, and guess what, my life will probably IMPROVE, whereas the ones who made the destruction of the country possible will have to stay and bear it! So, good luck!!! No, I won’t feel sorry for them either.

    One more time:
    Ni Ni’s and Chávistas, GOOD LUCK REAPING WHAT YOU SEWED!

    I hope all the honest Venezuelans have already abandoned what is left of once a country with so much potential has become.


    • This guy’s right. His life will probably improve in Europe, though there’s still probability that it will not. That’s the cool thing about life, isn’t it?


          • I don’t know, man, I look for blogs like this to get something off my chest, to let off steam. The rant above is (mostly) pointed toward myself. Sorry if it had hurt your feelings… It wasn’t my intention. ~
            But if you are a Ni Ni or Chavista, I’m glad you got disturbed with what I wrote.


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